Classification of lifting equipment:
Mobile vs. Fixed: Lifting equipment can be classified as mobile or fixed based on their
mobility. Mobile lifting equipment, such as cranes, forklifts, and mobile hoists, are designed
to be easily moved from one location to another. Fixed lifting equipment, on the other
hand, is permanently installed in a specific location, such as overhead cranes or gantry
cranes, and cannot be easily moved.
Manual vs. Powered: Lifting equipment can also be classified as manual or powered, based
on the type of energy used to operate them. Manual lifting equipment relies on human
power for operation, such as manual hoists or hand pallet trucks. Powered lifting
equipment, on the other hand, are operated using external power sources, such as electric,
hydraulic, or pneumatic power. Examples of powered lifting equipment include electric
hoists, hydraulic lifts, and air hoists.
Requirements for safe lifting:
Proper Training and Certification
Equipment Inspection and Maintenance
Load Capacity and Weight Distribution
Proper Rigging and Attachments
Clear Communication and Signals
Proper Work Area Preparation
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Compliance with Regulations and Standards
Risk Assessment and Hazard Mitigation
Types of lifting:
Hoist and winch lifting
Rigging and slinging
Roles and responsibilities of AP:
Lifting plan development
Coordination and communication
Compliance with regulations and standards
Training and supervision
Complexity and complexity will determine which level of lifting:
The complexity of lifting operations can vary greatly depending on various factors, such as
the type of lifting equipment used, the size and weight of the load being lifted, the
environmental conditions, the location of the lifting operation, the level of training and
experience of the personnel involved and the regulatory requirements.
In general, lifting operations can be classified into different complexity levels, ranging from
simple to complex. The complexity level of a lifting operation is typically determined by
assessing the risk factors associated with the operation. Some common factors that may
contribute to the complexity level of a lifting operation include:
Load size and weight:
Location and accessibility
Hazards and risks
Personnel training and experience
Types of levels for riggers How many level for riggers:
Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 riggers
Categories the safe working load:
General SWL: This category typically includes the SWL ratings for common lifting
equipment, such as cranes, hoists, and slings, used in general lifting operations.
Specialized SWL: This category may include the SWL ratings for specialized lifting equipment
used in specific industries or applications, such as offshore lifting operations, heavy
construction, aerospace, or nuclear industries.
Sling SWL: This category includes the SWL ratings for various types of lifting slings, such as
wire rope slings, chain slings, synthetic slings, and webbing slings.
Rigging SWL: This category may include the SWL ratings for rigging hardware and
accessories, such as shackles, hooks, and connectors, used in conjunction with lifting
equipment and slings
Who are all required for a simple lifting operations?
Other Personnel: Depending on the specific lifting operation, additional personnel may be
required, such as spotters, flaggers, and other ground personnel
What is tandem lifting?
Tandem lifting, also known as dual lifting or multiple lifting, refers to a lifting operation
where two or more cranes are used in tandem to lift and move a single load. This is done to
handle loads that are too heavy, too large, or too complex for a single crane to handle
safely and efficiently.
Tandem lifting requires careful planning, coordination, and communication among the
crane operators, riggers, signal persons, and other personnel involved in the lifting
Can you use simple lifting equipment for tandem lifting:
Simple lifting equipment for tandem lifting is typically not recommended due to safety
How many equipment used for tandem lifting:
The number of equipment used for tandem lifting depends on the specific requirements of
the lifting operation, including the weight, size, shape, and complexity of the load, as well as
the availability of suitable lifting equipment and the regulations and guidelines applicable to
the operation. Typically, tandem lifting involves the use of two or more cranes, which may
be of the same type or different types, working in coordination to lift and transport a single
What is RCI?
RCI stands for Rated Capacity Indicator. It is a safety feature commonly found on cranes and
other lifting equipment that provides an indication of the maximum safe lifting capacity of
the equipment based on various parameters, such as boom length, angle, load radius, and
What is ASLI?
Automatic Safe Load Indicator (ASLI) is a device which is installed on mobile or portal cranes, tower crane, crawler crane, hydra crane, floating crane. to alert the operator if the lift is exceeding the safe operating range of the machinery.
Is old mobile crane can be used for lifting:
The suitability of an old mobile crane for lifting operations depends on various factors,
including its condition, maintenance history, load capacity, safety features, and compliance
with relevant regulations and standards.
What are the parameters will you see inside a crane cabin computer.
Load information: This may include the weight of the load being lifted, the load radius
(distance from the crane’s center of rotation to the load), and the load chart showing the
crane’s rated capacity for the current load configuration.
Crane configuration: This may include the current boom length, jib length (if applicable),
and the angle of the boom or jib.
Operating mode: This may indicate the current operating mode of the crane, such as
hoisting, swinging, or slewing.
Crane diagnostics: This may include information on the status of various crane components
and systems, such as engine or motor performance, hydraulic system pressure, safety
devices, and error or fault codes for troubleshooting purposes.
Environmental conditions: This may include information on wind speed, temperature, and
other environmental factors that may affect the safe operation of the crane.
Safety features: This may include real-time feedback on safety features such as Automatic
Safe Load Indicator (ASLI) readings, outrigger position, and other safety parameters.
Operator controls: This may include information on the current position and status of the
crane’s controls, such as joystick positions, switches, and buttons.
Safety ration between allowable pressure bar and ultimate pressure bar:
The safety ratio is calculated by dividing the allowable pressure by the ultimate pressure. A
higher safety ratio indicates a greater margin of safety, while a lower safety ratio indicates a
smaller margin of safety. The specific safety ratio requirements may vary depending on the
industry, application, and regulatory standards.
What is the solution if ultimate pressure bar is high:
Use a stronger or higher capacity equipment
Redesign or reinforce the structure or component
Reduce the load or force
Seek expert advice
What people are involved in complex lifting as per ST 19 and what type of riggers level a riggers should have in complex lifting:
Appointed person lifting operation
Rigger level 3
What is the difference between AT and RT crane:
AT (All-Terrain both Normal and sandy conditions) crane and RT (Rough Terrain for sandy
condition) crane are both types of mobile cranes
How many types of ropes available in mobile crane:
Wire rope: Wire rope is made of multiple strands of steel wires twisted together to form a
strong and flexible rope. It is widely used in mobile cranes due to its high strength,
durability, and resistance to abrasion and corrosion.
Synthetic rope: Synthetic ropes are made of synthetic materials such as polyester,
High-performance ropes: High-performance ropes are specialized ropes that are designed
for specific lifting applications that require high strength, light weight, and other specialized
Specialized ropes: There are various specialized ropes used in mobile cranes for specific
applications, such as rotation-resistant ropes, non-rotating ropes, and anti-twist ropes,
Shackles capacity from low to high:
1/4 ton shackle (or 0.25 ton shackle)
1/2 ton shackle (or 0.5 ton shackle)
3/4 ton shackle (or 0.75 ton shackle)
1 ton shackle
1.5 ton shackle
2 ton shackle
2.5 ton shackle
3.25 ton shackle
4.75 ton shackle
6.5 ton shackle
8.5 ton shackle
9.5 ton shackle
12 ton shackle
13.5 ton shackle
17 ton shackle
25 ton shackle
35 ton shackle
55 ton shackle
85 ton shackle
120 ton shackle
What is the bold line value in load chart(above and below)
Above the bold line: The area above the bold line in the load chart indicates the crane’s
capacity when lifting with the boom fully extended to its maximum length, with or without
a jib, and with other specified configurations, such as outrigger extensions, counterweights,
or other accessories.
Below the bold line: The area below the bold line in the load chart indicates the crane’s
capacity when lifting with the boom at shorter lengths, or with different configurations or
operating conditions that may reduce the crane’s lifting capacity. This could include factors
such as reduced boom length, use of a jib, reduced outrigger extension, reduced
counterweights, or other limitations specified by the manufacturer.
If your crane limit is above the bold line what will happen?
If a crane’s load exceeds the maximum allowable lifting capacity as indicated above the bold
line on the load chart, it can result in an overloaded condition, which is extremely
dangerous and can lead to serious accidents, including crane tip-overs, structural failures,
and injuries to personnel.
If you lifting below bold line what happen?
If a crane is operating below its load limit, which is represented by a “bold line” or the rated
capacity of the crane, it means that the crane is lifting a load that is within its safe operating
How many types of slings using?
Wire rope slings
Synthetic web slings
Difference between chain block and line block:
The main difference between a chain block and a line block is that a chain block is a
standalone lifting device used for vertical lifting, while a line block is a pulley-type accessory
used for changing direction or increasing mechanical advantage in lifting systems.
What is EOT crane?
EOT crane stands for Electric Overhead Traveling crane, which is a type of crane used for
material handling and lifting operations in industrial and commercial settings. EOT cranes
are also commonly known as bridge cranes, overhead cranes, or overhead traveling cranes.
Different between SWL and proof load for EOT crane:
Safe Working Load (SWL): SWL refers to the maximum load that a crane or lifting
equipment is designed and rated to safely handle during normal operation.
Proof Load: Proof load refers to a higher load than the SWL, which is applied to a crane or
lifting equipment during a specific test to verify its structural integrity and safety. Proof load
is typically a percentage (e.g., 125% or 150%) of the SWL
If 5 ton is SWL in EOT than what is proof load?
25% Proof Load: In this case, the proof load would be 125% of the SWL, which is 5 tons x
125% = 6.25 tons.
150% Proof Load: In this case, the proof load would be 150% of the SWL, which is 5 tons x
150% = 7.5 tons.
Can you take proof load directly?
No, it is not advisable to take proof load directly on an EOT crane or any other lifting
equipment without proper testing procedures and precautions. Proof load testing is
typically conducted by qualified personnel in controlled environments as part of the initial
installation or periodic inspection process to verify the structural integrity and safe
operation of the crane or lifting equipment.
What is crab in EOT crane?
A “crab” typically refers to a trolley or a hoisting mechanism that moves along the bridge
girder of the crane. The crab is responsible for horizontal movement of the load along the
length of the bridge girder, allowing the crane to position the load precisely in different
locations within its working area.
How many movement in EOT crane?
Longitudinal (Bridge) Travel
Vertical (Hoist) Travel:
Cross (Trolley) Travel:
What is tag line?
A tag line is a rope or line that is used to guide or control the movement of a load during
lifting or lowering operations. It is typically attached to a load that is being lifted by a crane
or other lifting equipment to help guide and control the load’s movement in a controlled
How you make LP for trenches
Identify the specific requirements:
Assess the hazards:
Select appropriate lifting equipment:
Develop lifting procedures:
Identify responsibilities and personnel:
Include relevant documentation:
Review and approve:
Communicate and implement:
Review and update as necessary
Where do you place crane near the trench. What will be safe distance?
The placement of a crane near a trench or excavation will depend on various factors,
including the size and depth of the trench, the type of work being performed, the lifting
equipment being used, and the site conditions.
Maintain safe working distances. For example, if the trench is 10 feet deep, the crane
should be positioned at least 15 feet away from the edge of the trench
Consider the swing radius
Ensure stable ground conditions
Consider overhead clearance
Follow manufacturer’s recommendations
Range of RCI? Describe 3 reading of RCI? What is range of SWL at RCI?
RCI, or Rated Capacity Indicator, is a system used in cranes to provide real-time monitoring
and feedback on the load being lifted, helping to prevent overloading and ensure safe lifting
Load weight, Boom angle, Load radius.
The range of Safe Working Load (SWL) at which the RCI system is calibrated will depend on
the specific crane and its manufacturer’s specifications. The SWL is the maximum weight
that a crane is designed and rated to lift under normal operating conditions, and it is
typically specified by the crane manufacturer for different configurations, boom lengths,
and load radii. The RCI system is calibrated to provide readings within the SWL range, and it
is important for the crane operator to ensure that the load being lifted does not exceed the
SWL as indicated by the RCI system to maintain safe lifting operations.
Approximate hazard for 50 feet lifting if power line in 50 feet.
If the power line is at a height of 50 feet and you are planning to lift a load to a height of 50
feet using a crane, there would be a significant hazard of the crane or load coming into
contact with the power line. This can result in a serious risk of electrical shock,
electrocution, and other accidents, which can cause severe injuries or even fatalities.
How to do risk assessment? Steps of risk assessment:
Risk assessment is a systematic process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing potential
hazards or risks associated with a specific activity, process, or operation. It involves
analyzing the likelihood and severity of potential hazards, determining the level of risk, and
developing strategies to mitigate or manage those risks.
Here are the general steps involved in conducting a risk assessment:
Assess the likelihood of hazards
Assess the severity of hazards
Determine the level of risk
Develop risk mitigation strategies
Monitor and review
You are preparing complex LP if you are not competent what will you do?
If you are not competent or qualified to prepare a complex lift plan (LP), it is important to
acknowledge your limitations and seek appropriate help or guidance.
Seek assistance from a qualified person:
Obtain proper training and certification
Collaborate with a competent team
Follow relevant regulations and standards
Review and verify the LP:
If you are surrender what you will do? If single point authority cannot do then what?
If a person designated as the Single Point Authority (SPA) or Appointed Person (AP) for a
lifting operation does not feel competent or capable of fulfilling their responsibilities, it is
important to prioritize safety and take appropriate actions.
Refuse the Role
Training and Development
Can a single point authority be an AP?
Yes, in the context of lifting operations and crane operations, a single point authority (SPA)
can also act as an appointed person (AP) in certain situations. However, this depends on the
specific requirements of the job and the regulations or standards being followed.
If you are preparing lifting plan and the ground bearing pressure is lower than ultimate Ground Pressure. Is lifting allowed?
Exceeding the ultimate ground pressure can lead to soil failure, ground settlement, or other
issues that may compromise the stability and safety of the lifting operation. It is important
to adhere to established safe working practices and follow relevant regulations, guidelines,
and standards for lifting operations, including proper assessment of ground bearing
If weight is 100kg on steel mat can you change dimension on Automatic Safe Load
Recommended wind speed for lift a human basket
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards in the United States,
specify that personnel lifts should not be operated when wind speeds exceed 20 miles per
hour (32 kilometers per hour) or gusts exceed 25 miles per hour (40 kilometers per hour).
However, it’s important to note that these wind speed limits can vary depending on the
specific circumstances and equipment being used, and compliance with local regulations
and standards is crucial.
Safety factor for chain sling, wire sling and web sling (it will be 4 for chain sling 5 for wire
sling and 7 for web sling)
Chain slings: A typical safety factor for chain slings is 4:1,
Wire slings: The safety factor for wire slings can vary depending on the type of wire rope
and construction, as well as the application. Generally, a safety factor of 5:1
Web slings: Web slings, also known as synthetic slings, are typically made of nylon,
polyester, or other synthetic materials. The safety factor for web slings is often higher than
that of chain or wire slings due to their different characteristics. A safety factor of 7:1
Ages limit for crane and FL as per ST 19:
Telescopic crane has one hidden rope where it is?